This state page integrates student data, economic contributions, state policies, effective practices, and other resources to learn about and better support the state’s undocumented, other immigrant, and international students in higher education.
We classify Washington as a Comprehensive Access state in terms of inclusive in-state tuition and state financial aid policies for undocumented students. The Portal tracks state policies for undocumented students on in-state tuition, state financial aid, professional and occupational licensure, and driver licenses.
Higher education in the U.S. benefits from the participation of immigrant and international students. First and second-generation individuals comprise 28% of all students enrolled in higher education, a growing figure that underscores the importance of immigrant-origin students in the classroom and our workforce.
|All Students in Higher Education in Washington||367,000|
|First-Generation Immigrant Students||31,000|
|Second-Generation Immigrant Students||91,000|
Note: First-generation immigrants were born abroad and immigrated to the U.S. Second-generation immigrants are U.S.-born individuals with at least one immigrant parent. First-generation immigrants include undocumented immigrants. First-generation immigrants do not include international students on a visa.
The U.S. is home to more than 427,000 undocumented students enrolled in higher education. In their pursuit of higher education, undocumented students actively ready themselves to fill critical skill shortages and become better positioned to support their families, communities, and the U.S. economy.
|Undocumented Students in Higher Education||15,039|
|Undocumented Students Graduating High School Each Year||2,000|
Note: Undocumented students are a sub-group of first-generation students.
International students comprise only 5 percent of all students in higher education, but provide significant economic, academic and cultural contributions that enrich learning, enrollment and funding opportunities for American students.
|International Students in Higher Education||21,144|
|Economic Contributions of International Students in the State||$739.2 million|
|Jobs Supported by International Students in the State||6,354|
|Optional Practical Training (OPT) Participants||7,585|
Note: Optional Practical Training participants are a subgroup of international students.
Immigrant residents, including undocumented immigrants and DACA-eligible residents, play an important role in the state's economy, contributing spending power and paying federal, state, and local taxes.
|All Immigrant Residents in Washington||1,132,307|
|Immigrant Share of Total Population||14.9%|
|Undocumented Immigrants in State||273,867|
|DACA-Eligible Residents in State||30,091|
|Spending Power of DACA-Eligible Residents||$634.4 million|
|DACA-Eligible Residents Federal Tax Contributions||$126.4 million|
|DACA-Eligible Residents State and Local Tax Contributions||$111.3 million|
Note: DACA-eligible residents are a sub-group of undocumented immigrant residents.
Higher education helps prepare all students, including immigrant and international students, to fill critical career and skills needs.
|State Immigrant Workers Fill Critical Skills Needs|
|Share of STEM Workers Who Are First-Generation Immigrants||31.2%|
|Share of Nurses Who Are First-Generation Immigrants||16.2%|
|Share of Health Aides Who Are First-Generation Immigrants||32.1%|
|First-Generation Immigrant Faculty and Staff in Colleges, Universities and Professional Schools||19,288|
|Share of First-Generation Immigrants With a Postsecondary Credential||52%|
Note: First-generation immigrants were born abroad and immigrated to the U.S.
You can find additional state data, including by congressional district, in the following resources by immigrant population (AIC) and international students (NAFSA).
Evaluating Access for Undocumented & Refugee Students
State policies in four key areas – in state tuition, state financial aid, professional and occupational licensure, and driver licenses – play an important role in expanding access to higher education and workforce development for undocumented students. The section below on in-state tuition also includes policies related to refugee students.
In-State Tuition & State Financial Aid Access and Affordability
Comprehensive Access: Policies provide statewide access to in-state tuition and some state financial aid or scholarships for the state's resident DACA recipients and undocumented students.
Professional & Occupational Licensure Workforce Entry & Eligibility
No State Policy: No policies identified that actively expand access to occupational licensure for individuals who do not have legal immigration status.
Driver Licenses & Identification Mobility
Accessible: Policies provide the state’s undocumented residents with access to driver licenses and/or state identification regardless of their immigration status, but these are not REAL ID compliant.
Washington provides eligible undocumented residents, including DACA recipients, with access to in-state tuition, state financial aid, and driver licenses and state identification.
Washington does not appear to have legislation that extends occupational and professional licensure to undocumented individuals.
Washington House Bill (H.B.) 1079, signed into law on January 15, 2003, allows eligible undocumented students, including DACA recipients, to access in-state tuition. Students must meet certain requirements to access in-state tuition, including:
- Completed a full senior year at a high school in. the state and earned a diploma or received an equivalent (GED);
- Resided in Washington for at least three consecutive years as of the date the person received a diploma or GED;
- Continually lived in Washington since receiving a diploma or GED; and,
- Filed an affidavit verifying that they qualify to pay resident tuition and will seek legal permanent residency when legally permitted to do so.
Washington House Bill (H.B.) 1488, signed into law on March 22, 2018, provides certain individuals admitted to the United States as refugees with access to in-state tuition.
Refugee In-State Tuition: Refugees are eligible for in-state tuition after meeting residency requirements pursuant to RCW 28B.15.012 and its implementing provision WAC 250-18-020.
Washington provides undocumented students, including DACA recipients, with access to state financial aid.
Washington House Bill (H.B.) 1817, signed into law on March 13, 2013, authorizes DACA recipients to access state financial aid by applying for State Need Grants. DACA recipients must complete all of the following requirements:
- Completed a full senior year of high school and obtained a diploma or the equivalent at a Washington high school;
- Lived in Washington for at least three years before receiving a diploma or the equivalent;
- Continuously lived in Washington from receiving a diploma or the equivalent until being admitted to an eligible institution of higher education; and,
- Been granted Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA).
Washington Senate Bill (S.B.) 6523, also known as the Real Hope Act, signed into law on February 26, 2014, provides undocumented students without DACA access to state financial aid.
Washington Senate Bill (S.B.) 6561, signed into law on April 2, 2020, permits undocumented students to apply for state loans.
Washington does not appear to have statewide legislation that affirmatively extends occupational and professional licensure to undocumented individuals.
Undocumented immigrants living in Washington are eligible to obtain a driver license. House Bill (H.B.) 1444, signed into law on May 17, 1993 and effective as of July 25, 1993, allows individuals to obtain a driver’s license if they can provide proof of Washington residency and meet other requirements, regardless of the individual’s immigration status. House Bill (H.B.) 5008, signed into law on May 16, 2017, specifies that undocumented immigrants can access standard driver’s licenses, not enhanced driver’s licenses that are REAL ID compliant.
DACA recipients in Washington are also allowed to obtain a driver license or state identification card.
The following narratives highlight stories of immigrant, refugee, and international students, alumni, and scholars, including in their own words or as shared publicly.
Alumni Narrative: Anisa
A Somali refuge becomes the director of the Seattle clinic where she was cared for as a child.Continue Reading
Effective Practices and State Resources
Spotlight on effective practices and policy, research, or community-based state resources.
Report: Higher Education and Success for Undocumented Students Start with 9 Key Criteria
Higher Education is the key to achieving social & economic mobility in the U.S. The Education Trust analyzed 9 criteria in the 15 states with the largest shares of undocumented college students to determine whether state policies are helping or hurting undocumented students’ ability to access & complete college.Continue Reading
Report: The Post-DACA Generation is Here
A new report finds that an estimated 100,000 undocumented students will graduate from high school in 2022, with most of them not eligible for DACA. The new FWD.us report, published in May 2022, The Post-DACA Generation is Here, explains how DACA’s unavailability impacts undocumented youth in the U.S.Continue Reading
Expanding Refugee Access to In-state Tuition
We have identified a limited number of states, that have passed legislation allowing refugee students to access in-state tuition.Continue Reading