This state page integrates student data, economic contributions, state policies, effective practices, and other resources to learn about and better support the state’s undocumented, other immigrant, and international students in higher education.
We classify Virginia as a Comprehensive Access state in terms of inclusive in-state tuition and state financial aid policies for undocumented students. The Portal tracks state policies for undocumented students on in-state tuition, state financial aid, professional and occupational licensure, and driver licenses.
Higher education in the U.S. benefits from the participation of immigrant and international students. First and second-generation individuals comprise 28% of all students enrolled in higher education, a growing figure that underscores the importance of immigrant-origin students in the classroom and our workforce.
|All Students in Higher Education in Virginia||552,000|
|First-Generation Immigrant Students||64,000|
|Second-Generation Immigrant Students||60,000|
Note: First-generation immigrants were born abroad and immigrated to the U.S. Second-generation immigrants are U.S.-born individuals with at least one immigrant parent. First-generation immigrants include undocumented immigrants. First-generation immigrants do not include international students on a visa.
The U.S. is home to more than 427,000 undocumented students enrolled in higher education. In their pursuit of higher education, undocumented students actively ready themselves to fill critical skill shortages and become better positioned to support their families, communities, and the U.S. economy.
|Undocumented Students in Higher Education||12,387|
|Undocumented Students Graduating High School Each Year||2,000|
Note: Undocumented students are a sub-group of first-generation students.
International students comprise only 5 percent of all students in higher education, but provide significant economic, academic and cultural contributions that enrich learning, enrollment and funding opportunities for American students.
|International Students in Higher Education||17,841|
|Economic Contributions of International Students in the State||$604.5 million|
|Jobs Supported by International Students in the State||6,553|
|Optional Practical Training (OPT) Participants||7,086|
Note: Optional Practical Training participants are a subgroup of international students.
Immigrant residents, including undocumented immigrants and DACA-eligible residents, play an important role in the state's economy, contributing spending power and paying federal, state, and local taxes.
|All Immigrant Residents in Virginia||1,089,294|
|Immigrant Share of Total Population||12.8%|
|Undocumented Immigrants in State||265,830|
|DACA-Eligible Residents in State||21,848|
|Spending Power of DACA-Eligible Residents||$386.5 million|
|DACA-Eligible Residents Federal Tax Contributions||$72.7 million|
|DACA-Eligible Residents State and Local Tax Contributions||$46.7 million|
Note: DACA-eligible residents are a sub-group of undocumented immigrant residents.
Higher education helps prepare all students, including immigrant and international students, to fill critical career and skills needs.
|State Immigrant Workers Fill Critical Skills Needs|
|Share of STEM Workers Who Are First-Generation Immigrants||23.0%|
|Share of Nurses Who Are First-Generation Immigrants||14%|
|Share of Health Aides Who Are First-Generation Immigrants||18.7%|
|First-Generation Immigrant Faculty and Staff in Colleges, Universities and Professional Schools||23,464|
|Share of First-Generation Immigrants With a Postsecondary Credential||58%|
Note: First-generation immigrants were born abroad and immigrated to the U.S.
You can find additional state data, including by congressional district, in the following resources by immigrant population (AIC) and international students (NAFSA).
Evaluating Access for Undocumented & Refugee Students
State policies in four key areas – in state tuition, state financial aid, professional and occupational licensure, and driver licenses – play an important role in expanding access to higher education and workforce development for undocumented students. The section below on in-state tuition also includes policies related to refugee students.
In-State Tuition & State Financial Aid Access and Affordability
Comprehensive Access: Policies provide statewide access to in-state tuition and some state financial aid or scholarships for the state's resident DACA recipients and undocumented students.
Professional & Occupational Licensure Workforce Entry & Eligibility
No State Policy: No policies identified that actively expand access to occupational licensure for individuals who do not have legal immigration status.
Driver Licenses & Identification Mobility
Accessible: Policies provide the state’s undocumented residents with access to driver licenses and/or state identification regardless of their immigration status, but these are not REAL ID compliant.
Virginia provides eligible undocumented residents, including DACA recipients, with access to in-state tuition and driver licenses and state identification.
Virginia passed legislation to provide undocumented residents with access to state financial aid, which goes into effect on August 1, 2022.
Virginia does not appear to have legislation that affirmatively extends occupational and professional licensure to undocumented individuals, including DACA recipients.
Virginia House Bill (H.B.) 1547, which went into effect on July 1, 2020, allows certain undocumented students living in Virginia to access in-state tuition. Undocumented students must meet certain requirements to qualify for in-state tuition, including:
- Attended high school for at least two years in the Commonwealth and either,
- Graduated on or after July 1, 2008, from a public or private high school or program of home instruction in the Commonwealth, or
- Passed a high school equivalency examination approved by the Secretary of Education;
- Submitted evidence that they, in the case of a dependent student, or at least one parent, guardian, or person standing in loco parentis has filed, unless exempted by state law, Virginia income tax returns free at least two years prior to the date of registration or enrollment; and,
- Register as an entering student in a public institution of higher education in the Commonwealth.
Virginia H.B. 1179, signed into law on April 6, 2020, provides certain individuals admitted to the United States as refugees or who have a Special Immigrant Visa (SIV) with access to in-state tuition.
Refugee In-State Tuition: Virginia H.B. 1179 provides certain individuals admitted to the United States as refugees or who have a Special Immigrant Visa (SIV) with access to in-state tuition. The Code of Virginia, § 23.1-506(9) provides: “Any individual who (i) was admitted to the United States as a refugee under 8 U.S.C. § 1157 within the previous two calendar years or (ii) received a Special Immigrant Visa that has been granted status under P.L. 110-181 § 1244, P.L. 109-163 § 1059, or P.L. 11-8 § 602 within the previous two calendar years and, upon entering the United States, resided in the Commonwealth and continues to reside in the Commonwealth as a refugee or pursuant to such Special Immigrant Visa.”
Virginia’s state legislature passed Senate Bill (S.B.) 1387 in February 2021 to expand access to state financial aid to undocumented students. The legislation would allow the state’s undocumented students to be eligible for state financial aid, school-issued aid, and Tuition Assistance Grants if they meet certain requirements. Governor Ralph Northam (D-VA) signed S.B. 1387 into law on March 12, 2021.
S.B. 1387 will go into effect on August 1, 2022.
Additional Financial Aid
TheDream.US is a national organization that offers scholarships to DACA and undocumented students attending eligible postsecondary institutions across the country. In Virginia, the following institutions are TheDream.US Partner Colleges:
- George Mason University;
- Marymount University; and,
- Northern Virginia Community College.
Virginia does not appear to have statewide legislation that affirmatively extends occupational and professional licensure to undocumented individuals, including DACA recipients.
Undocumented immigrants living in Virginia are eligible to obtain a driver privilege card. Virginia Senate Bill (S.B.) 34, signed into law on April 22, 2020 and effective as of January 1, 2021, authorizes the issuance of driver privilege cards for individuals who cannot submit proof of U.S. citizenship or immigration status. To qualify for the driver privilege card, individuals must provide evidence of reported income from a source in Virginia or have been claimed as a dependent on a Virginia tax return in the preceding 12 months.
DACA recipients in Virginia are allowed to obtain a driver license or state identification card.
The following narratives highlight stories of immigrant, refugee, and international students, alumni, and scholars, including in their own words or as shared publicly.
Alumni Narrative: Myra
Myra, a Burmese refugee, came to the U.S. on a student visa. She won asylum.Continue Reading
Effective Practices and State Resources
Spotlight on effective practices and policy, research, or community-based state resources.
Report: Higher Education and Success for Undocumented Students Start with 9 Key Criteria
Higher Education is the key to achieving social & economic mobility in the U.S. The Education Trust analyzed 9 criteria in the 15 states with the largest shares of undocumented college students to determine whether state policies are helping or hurting undocumented students’ ability to access & complete college.Continue Reading
Report: The Post-DACA Generation is Here
A new report finds that an estimated 100,000 undocumented students will graduate from high school in 2022, with most of them not eligible for DACA. The new FWD.us report, published in May 2022, The Post-DACA Generation is Here, explains how DACA’s unavailability impacts undocumented youth in the U.S.Continue Reading
Expanding Refugee Access to In-state Tuition
We have identified a limited number of states, that have passed legislation allowing refugee students to access in-state tuition.Continue Reading