This state page integrates student data, economic contributions, state policies, effective practices, and other resources to learn about and better support the state’s undocumented, other immigrant, and international students in higher education.
We classify Texas as a Comprehensive Access state in terms of inclusive in-state tuition and state financial aid policies for undocumented students. The Portal tracks state policies for undocumented students on in-state tuition, state financial aid, professional and occupational licensure, and driver licenses.
Higher education in the U.S. benefits from the participation of immigrant and international students. First and second-generation individuals comprise 28% of all students enrolled in higher education, a growing figure that underscores the importance of immigrant-origin students in the classroom and our workforce.
|All Students in Higher Education in Texas||1,644,000|
|First-Generation Immigrant Students||162,000|
|Second-Generation Immigrant Students||396,000|
Note: First-generation immigrants were born abroad and immigrated to the U.S. Second-generation immigrants are U.S.-born individuals with at least one immigrant parent. First-generation immigrants include undocumented immigrants. First-generation immigrants do not include international students on a visa.
The U.S. is home to more than 427,000 undocumented students enrolled in higher education. In their pursuit of higher education, undocumented students actively ready themselves to fill critical skill shortages and become better positioned to support their families, communities, and the U.S. economy.
|Undocumented Students in Higher Education||58,255|
|DACA-Eligible Students in Higher Education||30,850|
|Non-DACA Eligible Students in Higher Education||27,405|
|Undocumented Students Graduating High School Each Year||17,000|
Note: Undocumented students are a sub-group of first-generation students.
International students comprise only 5 percent of all students in higher education, but provide significant economic, academic and cultural contributions that enrich learning, enrollment and funding opportunities for American students.
|International Students in Higher Education||70,223|
|Economic Contributions of International Students in the State||$1.8 billion|
|Jobs Supported by International Students in the State||18,391|
|Optional Practical Training (OPT) Participants||22,870|
Note: Optional Practical Training participants are a subgroup of international students.
Immigrant residents, including undocumented immigrants and DACA-eligible residents, play an important role in the state's economy, contributing spending power and paying federal, state, and local taxes.
|All Immigrant Residents in Texas||4,948,998|
|Immigrant Share of Total Population||17.1%|
|Undocumented Immigrants in State||1,746,465|
|DACA-Eligible Residents in State||204,453|
|Spending Power of DACA-Eligible Residents||$3.235 billion|
|DACA-Eligible Residents Federal Tax Contributions||$509 million|
|DACA-Eligible Residents State and Local Tax Contributions||$454.4 million|
Note: DACA-eligible residents are a sub-group of undocumented immigrant residents.
Higher education helps prepare all students, including immigrant and international students, to fill critical career and skills needs.
|State Immigrant Workers Fill Critical Skills Needs|
|Share of STEM Workers Who Are First-Generation Immigrants||27.5%|
|Share of Nurses Who Are First-Generation Immigrants||20.4%|
|Share of Health Aides Who Are First-Generation Immigrants||24.1%|
|DACA recipients in STEM or Health Professions||4,478|
|DACA recipients in Education (K-12, Higher Education, Education Industry)||7,310|
|First-Generation Immigrant Faculty and Staff in Colleges, Universities and Professional Schools||72,393|
|Share of First-Generation Immigrants With a Postsecondary Credential||43%|
Note: First-generation immigrants were born abroad and immigrated to the U.S.
You can find additional state data, including by congressional district, in the following resources by immigrant population (AIC) and international students (NAFSA).
Evaluating Access for Undocumented & Refugee Students
State policies in four key areas – in state tuition, state financial aid, professional and occupational licensure, and driver licenses – play an important role in expanding access to higher education and workforce development for undocumented students. The section below on in-state tuition also includes policies related to refugee students.
In-State Tuition & State Financial Aid Access and Affordability
Comprehensive Access: Policies provide statewide access to in-state tuition and some state financial aid or scholarships for the state's resident DACA recipients and undocumented students.
Professional & Occupational Licensure Workforce Entry & Eligibility
No State Policy: No policies identified that actively expand access to occupational licensure for individuals who do not have legal immigration status.
Driver Licenses & Identification Mobility
Restrictive: Policies do not provide the state's undocumented residents with access to driver licenses and state identification, but DACA recipients can still obtain a driver's license or state identification card.
Texas provides eligible undocumented residents, including DACA recipients, with access to in-state tuition and state financial aid. The state does not appear to have legislation that extends occupational and professional licensure to undocumented individuals.
Texas does not provide undocumented residents with access to driver licenses and state identification.
Texas House Bill (H.B.) 1403, signed into law on June 16, 2001, provides the state’s eligible undocumented students, including DACA recipients, with access to in-state tuition.
The bill allows the state’s undocumented students to qualify for Texas residency, providing access to in-state tuition, if they meet certain requirements, including:
- Graduated from a public or private high school or received the equivalent of a high school diploma in Texas;
- Resided in Texas for at least three years as of the date the person graduated from high school or received the equivalent of a high school diploma;
- Register as an entering student in an institution of higher education not earlier than the 2001 fall semester; and,
- Provide an affidavit stating that the individual will file an application to become a permanent resident at the earliest opportunity the individual is eligible to do so.
In April 2022, a federal judge in Texas ruled that the University of North Texas cannot charge out-of-state U.S. students higher tuition than is charged to undocumented Texas students, who qualify for in-state tuition rates as per the 2001 Texas law. UNT lawyers have appealed the decision. While the decision does not directly impact undocumented students, it could have significant implications for the future of the 2001 law.
Refugee In-State Tuition: Texas Education Code Sec. 54.052 indicates that refugees are eligible for in-state tuition after establishing residency
Texas House Bill (H.B.) 1403, signed into law on June 16, 2001, also provides eligible undocumented students, including DACA recipients, with access to state financial aid, including state grants and state higher education loans.
Undocumented students must meet the same criteria required for in-state tuition under H.B. 1403 to access state financial aid.
Additional Financial Aid
TheDream.US is a national organization that offers scholarships to DACA and undocumented students attending eligible postsecondary institutions across the country. In Texas, the following institutions are TheDream.US Partner Colleges:
- San Antonio College;
- Texas A&M University San Antonio;
- University of Houston;
- University of North Texas at Dallas;
- University of Texas at El Paso; and,
- University of Texas Rio Grande Valley.
Texas does not appear to have statewide legislation that affirmatively extends occupational and professional licensure to undocumented individuals.
Undocumented immigrants in Texas do not have access to a driver license or state identification card.
DACA recipients in Texas are allowed to obtain a driver license or state identification card.
Historically we have seen bills to rescind in-state tuition for undocumented students in Texas introduced during each legislative session. During the legislative session of 2023, a number of immigration-related bills have been introduced including HB 859, HB 1117, HB 3280, SB 923, and SB 886. However, none of the bills that would rescind in-state tuition for undocumented students have advanced during the 2023 legislative session.
The following narratives highlight stories of immigrant, refugee, and international students, alumni, and scholars, including in their own words or as shared publicly.
Student Narrative: Jorge Contreras
Jorge Contreras is a bilingual medical assistant; this post shares how his background and bilingual abilities allow him to interact with his patients and better assist the physicians in treating them.Continue Reading
Student Narrative: Juan Piña Hernandez
Juan Pina Hernandez is an Operations Lead for H-E-B Grocery Company in South Texas. Learn how his experiences as a Dreamer allow him to be a great resource to his community.Continue Reading
Student Narrative: Hector Robledo
Hector Robledo works as an Academic Support Associate for students at the University of North Texas at Dallas, where he is also a graduate student. This narrative shares the story of how his work and experiences allow him to provide support and empathy to students, particularly those with a similar background.Continue Reading
Effective Practices and State Resources
Spotlight on effective practices and policy, research, or community-based state resources.
Texas In-State Tuition: What You Need to Know
In 2001, then-Governor Rick Perry signed the Texas Dream Act, House Bill (H.B.) 1403, which provides the state’s eligible undocumented students, including DACA recipients, with access to in-state tuition and state financial aidContinue Reading
Report: Higher Education and Success for Undocumented Students Start with 9 Key Criteria
Higher Education is the key to achieving social & economic mobility in the U.S. The Education Trust analyzed 9 criteria in the 15 states with the largest shares of undocumented college students to determine whether state policies are helping or hurting undocumented students’ ability to access & complete college.Continue Reading
Report: The Post-DACA Generation is Here
A new report finds that an estimated 100,000 undocumented students will graduate from high school in 2022, with most of them not eligible for DACA. The new FWD.us report, published in May 2022, The Post-DACA Generation is Here, explains how DACA’s unavailability impacts undocumented youth in the U.S.Continue Reading