This state page integrates student data, economic contributions, state policies, effective practices, and other resources to learn about and better support the state’s undocumented, other immigrant, and international students in higher education.
We classify Missouri as a Restrictive state in terms of inclusive in-state tuition and state financial aid policies for undocumented students. The Portal tracks state policies for undocumented students on in-state tuition, state financial aid, professional and occupational licensure, and driver licenses.
Higher education in the U.S. benefits from the participation of immigrant and international students. First and second-generation individuals comprise 28% of all students enrolled in higher education, a growing figure that underscores the importance of immigrant-origin students in the classroom and our workforce.
|All Students in Higher Education in Missouri||374,000|
|First-Generation Immigrant Students||5,000|
|Second-Generation Immigrant Students||14,000|
Note: First-generation immigrants were born abroad and immigrated to the U.S. Second-generation immigrants are U.S.-born individuals with at least one immigrant parent. First-generation immigrants include undocumented immigrants. First-generation immigrants do not include international students on a visa.
International students comprise only 5 percent of all students in higher education, but provide significant economic, academic and cultural contributions that enrich learning, enrollment and funding opportunities for American students.
|International Students in Higher Education||19,167|
|Economic Contributions of International Students in the State||$621.3 million|
|Jobs Supported by International Students in the State||6,416|
|Optional Practical Training (OPT) Participants||2,630|
Note: Optional Practical Training participants are a subgroup of international students.
Immigrant residents, including undocumented immigrants and DACA-eligible residents, play an important role in the state's economy, contributing spending power and paying federal, state, and local taxes.
|All Immigrant Residents in Missouri||258,741|
|Immigrant Share of Total Population||4.2%|
|Undocumented Immigrants in State||51,429|
|DACA-Eligible Residents in State||5,092|
|Spending Power of DACA-Eligible Residents||$69.7 million|
|DACA-Eligible Residents Federal Tax Contributions||$9 million|
|DACA-Eligible Residents State and Local Tax Contributions||$8 million|
Note: DACA-eligible residents are a sub-group of undocumented immigrant residents.
Higher education helps prepare all students, including immigrant and international students, to fill critical career and skills needs.
|State Immigrant Workers Fill Critical Skills Needs|
|Share of Nurses Who Are First-Generation Immigrants||5.2%|
|Share of Health Aides Who Are First-Generation Immigrants||4%|
|First-Generation Immigrant Faculty and Staff in Colleges, Universities and Professional Schools||15,026|
|Share of First-Generation Immigrants With a Postsecondary Credential||53%|
Note: First-generation immigrants were born abroad and immigrated to the U.S.
You can find additional state data, including by congressional district, in the following resources by immigrant population (AIC) and international students (NAFSA).
Evaluating Access for Undocumented & Refugee Students
State policies in four key areas – in state tuition, state financial aid, professional and occupational licensure, and driver licenses – play an important role in expanding access to higher education and workforce development for undocumented students. The section below on in-state tuition also includes policies related to refugee students.
In-State Tuition & State Financial Aid Access and Affordability
Restrictive: Policies actively bar access to in-state tuition or state financial aid for the state's undocumented students, including DACA recipients.
Professional & Occupational Licensure Workforce Entry & Eligibility
No State Policy: No policies identified that actively expand access to occupational licensure for individuals who do not have legal immigration status.
Driver Licenses & Identification Mobility
Restrictive: Policies do not provide the state's undocumented residents with access to driver licenses and state identification, but DACA recipients can still obtain a driver's license or state identification card.
Missouri prohibits undocumented residents, including DACA recipients, from accessing in-state tuition and state financial aid. The state does not appear to have legislation that extends occupational and professional licensure to undocumented individuals, including DACA recipients.
Missouri does not provide all undocumented residents with access to driver licenses and state identification.
Missouri’s legislature has adopted language in the state budget since 2015 that prevents public colleges and universities from offering in-state tuition to undocumented students.
Missouri House Bill (H.B.) 3, signed into law on May 8, 2015, clarified that DACA recipients are not eligible for in-state tuition.
Refugee In-State Tuition: The rules of the Department of Higher Education and Workforce Development [6 CSR 10-3.010] states “Individuals who are not citizens of the United States must possess a lawful immigration status, as determined by the federal government, prior to consideration for resident status as otherwise provided in this rule, except that individuals and their family members who hold F, J, or M visa status are ineligible for resident status.“
Missouri House Bill (H.B.) 390, signed into law on May 15, 2009, prohibits the state’s public colleges and universities from providing financial aid to undocumented students, including DACA recipients.
Missouri Senate Bill (S.B.) 224, signed into law in 2015, prohibits undocumented students from receiving the state’s A+ Scholarship.
Additional Financial Aid
TheDream.US is a national organization that offers scholarships to DACA and undocumented students attending eligible postsecondary institutions across the country. In Missouri, undocumented and DACA students may be eligible for a scholarship to attend the following out-of-state institutions:
- Christian Brothers University;
- Delaware State University;Eastern Connecticut State University; and,
- Trinity Washington University (Women’s College).
Missouri does not appear to have statewide legislation that affirmatively extends occupational and professional licensure to undocumented individuals, including DACA recipients.
Undocumented immigrants in Missouri do not have access to a driver license or state identification card. Missouri House Bill (H.B.) 361, signed into law on May 13, 2009, specifies that applicants for a driver’s licenses must be U.S. citizens or provide proof of lawful presence in the United States.
DACA recipients in Missouri are allowed to obtain a driver license or state identification card.
Effective Practices and State Resources
Spotlight on effective practices and policy, research, or community-based state resources.
Report: Higher Education and Success for Undocumented Students Start with 9 Key Criteria
Higher Education is the key to achieving social & economic mobility in the U.S. The Education Trust analyzed 9 criteria in the 15 states with the largest shares of undocumented college students to determine whether state policies are helping or hurting undocumented students’ ability to access & complete college.Continue Reading
Report: The Post-DACA Generation is Here
A new report finds that an estimated 100,000 undocumented students will graduate from high school in 2022, with most of them not eligible for DACA. The new FWD.us report, published in May 2022, The Post-DACA Generation is Here, explains how DACA’s unavailability impacts undocumented youth in the U.S.Continue Reading
Rethinking Tuition for Undocumented Students Through ITAs
The report examines whether inter-state tuition agreements can expand access to higher education for undocumented students.Continue Reading