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State Data

Higher education in the U.S. benefits from the participation of immigrant and international students. First and second-generation individuals comprise 28% of all students enrolled in higher education, a growing figure that underscores the importance of immigrant-origin students in the classroom and our workforce.

All Students in Higher Education in Minnesota409,000
First-Generation Immigrant Students12,000
Second-Generation Immigrant Students26,000
International Students13,503

Note: First-generation immigrants were born abroad and immigrated to the U.S. Second-generation immigrants are U.S.-born individuals with at least one immigrant parent. First-generation immigrants include undocumented immigrants. First-generation immigrants do not include international students on a visa.

International students comprise only 5 percent of all students in higher education, but provide significant economic, academic and cultural contributions that enrich learning, enrollment and funding opportunities for American students.

International Students in Higher Education13,503
Economic Contributions of International Students in the State$392.7 million
Jobs Supported by International Students in the State3,128
Optional Practical Training (OPT) Participants2,265

Note: Optional Practical Training participants are a subgroup of international students.

Immigrant residents, including undocumented immigrants and DACA-eligible residents, play an important role in the state's economy, contributing spending power and paying federal, state, and local taxes.

All Immigrant Residents in Minnesota476,556
Immigrant Share of Total Population8.5%
Undocumented Immigrants in State75,510
DACA-Eligible Residents in State7,189
Spending Power of DACA-Eligible Residents$171.3 million
DACA-Eligible Residents Federal Tax Contributions$32.1 million
DACA-Eligible Residents State and Local Tax Contributions$21.1 million

Note: DACA-eligible residents are a sub-group of undocumented immigrant residents.

Higher education helps prepare all students, including immigrant and international students, to fill critical career and skills needs.

State Immigrant Workers Fill Critical Skills Needs
Share of STEM Workers Who Are First-Generation Immigrants14.6%
Share of Nurses Who Are First-Generation Immigrants9.5%
Share of Health Aides Who Are First-Generation Immigrants24.8%
First-Generation Immigrant Faculty and Staff in Colleges, Universities and Professional Schools14,619
Share of First-Generation Immigrants With a Postsecondary Credential44%

Note: First-generation immigrants were born abroad and immigrated to the U.S.

You can find additional state data, including by congressional district, in the following resources by immigrant population (AIC) and international students (NAFSA).

State Policies

Evaluating Access for Undocumented Students

State policies in four key areas – in state tuition, state financial aid, professional and occupational licensure, and driver licenses – play an important role in expanding access to higher education and workforce development for undocumented students.

  • In-State Tuition & State Financial Aid Access and Affordability

    Comprehensive Access: Policies provide statewide access to in-state tuition and some state financial aid or scholarships for the state's resident DACA recipients and undocumented students.

  • Professional & Occupational Licensure Workforce Entry & Eligibility

    No State Policy: No policies identified that actively expand access to occupational licensure for individuals who do not have legal immigration status.

  • Driver Licenses & Identification Mobility

    Restrictive: Policies do not provide the state's undocumented residents with access to driver licenses and state identification, but DACA recipients can still obtain a driver's license or state identification card.

Enacted Policies

Minnesota provides eligible undocumented and refugee residents, including DACA recipients, with access to in-state tuition and state financial aid. The state does not appear to have legislation that extends occupational and professional licensure to undocumented individuals.

Minnesota does not provide undocumented residents with access to driver licenses and state identification.

In-State Tuition

The Minnesota Dream Act or also known as the Prosperity Act, was signed into law on May 23, 2013 as part of an omnibus higher education bill, provides the state’s undocumented students, including DACA recipients, with access to in-state tuition. Students must meet certain requirements to access in-state tuition, including:

  1. Attended a high school in the state for at least 3 years;
  2. Graduated from a Minnesota high school or earned a GED;
  3. Registered with the U.S. Selective Service (males 18 to 25 years old); and,
  4. Provide documentation to show they applied for lawful immigration status, but only if a federal process exists. There is currently no federal process in place for DACA recipients and undocumented students to apply for lawful immigration status, so this documentation is not required at the moment.

Certain public colleges and universities in Minnesota offer access to in-state tuition to all students regardless of their immigration status or state of residence, including students who do not qualify for the Minnesota Dream Act.

Minnesota Senate Bill SF 1236, approved on May 24, 2013, permits students defined as a refugee to be considered as resident students if upon arrival in the United States, they moved to Minnesota and have continued to reside in Minnesota. As a resident student, they then could qualify for the resident tuition rate in state universities and college if they meet the following requirements: 1) high school attendance within the state for three or more years; (2) graduation from a state high school or attainment within the state of the equivalent of high school graduation; and (3) in the case of a student without lawful immigration status: (i) documentation that the student has complied with selective service registration requirements; and (ii) if a federal process exists for the student to obtain lawful immigration status the student must present the higher education institution with documentation from federal immigration authorities that the student has filed an application to obtain lawful immigration status.

State Financial Aid

The Minnesota DREAM Act provides eligible undocumented students, including DACA recipients, with access to state financial aid.

Students may also be eligible for privately funded financial aid through public colleges and universities if they meet the state’s residency requirements.

Professional & Occupational Licensure

Minnesota does not appear to have legislation that affirmatively extends occupational and professional licensure to undocumented individuals, including DACA recipients.

Driver Licenses

Undocumented immigrants in Minnesota do not have access to a driver license or state identification card. According to the Minnesota Administrative Rules, all applicants for a driver’s license, driving permit, or state identification card need to provide proof of residency in Minnesota and lawful status in the United States.

DACA recipients in Minnesota are allowed to obtain a driver license or state identification card.

Proposed Policies

Minnesota is considering legislation that would  provide undocumented individuals with access to driver licenses.

Driver Licenses

Minnesota House Bill (H.F.) 4, known as the “Driver’s License for All Bill,” would allow individuals living in the state to obtain a driver’s license and identification card regardless of their immigration status. The driver’s license would be non-REAL ID compliant. The Minnesota state House passed H.F. 4 on January 30, 2023 by a 69 to 60 vote. The bill now heads to the state Senate.

Effective Practices and State Resources

Spotlight on effective practices and policy, research, or community-based state resources.

  • Policy

    Undocumented Students and Access to Inter-State Tuition Agreements (ITAs): Fact Sheet

    This fact sheet answers key questions related to undocumented students and their eligibility for inter-state tuition agreements (ITAs), which offer students who would otherwise be charged out-of-state tuition access to an in-state tuition rate or a discounted tuition rate in a participating state.

    Continue Reading
  • Research

    Report: The Post-DACA Generation is Here

    A new report finds that an estimated 100,000 undocumented students will graduate from high school in 2022, with most of them not eligible for DACA. The new FWD.us report, published in May 2022, The Post-DACA Generation is Here, explains how DACA’s unavailability impacts undocumented youth in the U.S.

    Continue Reading
  • Effective Practice

    Higher Ed Guide to Tuition, Financial Aid, & Other Funding Opportunities for Undocumented Students

    An overview of in-state tuition, state aid, and other funding opportunities for undocumented students.

    Continue Reading