This state page integrates student data, economic contributions, state policies, effective practices, and other resources to learn about and better support the state’s undocumented, other immigrant, and international students in higher education.
We classify California as a Comprehensive Access state in terms of inclusive in-state tuition and state financial aid policies for undocumented students. The Portal tracks state policies for undocumented students on in-state tuition, state financial aid, professional and occupational licensure, and driver licenses.
Higher education in the U.S. benefits from the participation of immigrant and international students. First and second-generation individuals comprise 28% of all students enrolled in higher education, a growing figure that underscores the importance of immigrant-origin students in the classroom and our workforce.
|All Students in Higher Education in California||2,712,000|
|First-Generation Immigrant Students||338,000|
|Second-Generation Immigrant Students||1,014,000|
Note: First-generation immigrants were born abroad and immigrated to the U.S. Second-generation immigrants are U.S.-born individuals with at least one immigrant parent. First-generation immigrants include undocumented immigrants. First-generation immigrants do not include international students on a visa.
The U.S. is home to more than 427,000 undocumented students enrolled in higher education. In their pursuit of higher education, undocumented students actively ready themselves to fill critical skill shortages and become better positioned to support their families, communities, and the U.S. economy.
|Undocumented Students in Higher Education||94,030|
|DACA-Eligible Students in Higher Education||49,704|
|Non-DACA Eligible Students in Higher Education||44,326|
|Undocumented Students Graduating High School Each Year||27,000|
Note: Undocumented students are a sub-group of first-generation students.
International students comprise only 5 percent of all students in higher education, but provide significant economic, academic and cultural contributions that enrich learning, enrollment and funding opportunities for American students.
|International Students in Higher Education||134,043|
|Economic Contributions of International Students in the State||$5.4 billion|
|Jobs Supported by International Students in the State||54,023|
|Optional Practical Training (OPT) Participants||44,536|
Note: Optional Practical Training participants are a subgroup of international students.
Immigrant residents, including undocumented immigrants and DACA-eligible residents, play an important role in the state's economy, contributing spending power and paying federal, state, and local taxes.
|All Immigrant Residents in California||10,555,425|
|Immigrant Share of Total Population||26.7%|
|Undocumented Immigrants in State||2,010,993|
|DACA-Eligible Residents in State||253,818|
|Spending Power of DACA-Eligible Residents||$5.062 billion|
|DACA-Eligible Residents Federal Tax Contributions||$905.4 million|
|DACA-Eligible Residents State and Local Tax Contributions||$626.6 million|
Note: DACA-eligible residents are a sub-group of undocumented immigrant residents.
Higher education helps prepare all students, including immigrant and international students, to fill critical career and skills needs.
|State Immigrant Workers Fill Critical Skills Needs|
|Share of STEM Workers Who Are First-Generation Immigrants||39.4%|
|Share of Nurses Who Are First-Generation Immigrants||35.8%|
|Share of Health Aides Who Are First-Generation Immigrants||45.5%|
|DACA recipients in STEM or Health Professions||8,579|
|DACA recipients in Education (K-12, Higher Education, Education Industry)||9,211|
|First-Generation Immigrant Faculty and Staff in Colleges, Universities and Professional Schools||134,644|
|Share of First-Generation Immigrants With a Postsecondary Credential||43%|
Note: First-generation immigrants were born abroad and immigrated to the U.S.
You can find additional state data, including by congressional district, in the following resources by immigrant population (NAE) and international students (NAFSA).
Evaluating Access for Undocumented Students
State policies in four key areas – in state tuition, state financial aid, professional and occupational licensure, and driver licenses – play an important role in expanding access to higher education and workforce development for undocumented students.
In-State Tuition & State Financial Aid Access and Affordability
Comprehensive Access: Policies provide statewide access to in-state tuition and some state financial aid or scholarships for the state's resident DACA recipients and undocumented students.
Professional & Occupational Licensure Workforce Entry & Eligibility
Comprehensive Access: Policies allow individuals to obtain occupational licensure in all professions regardless of their immigration status, provided that they meet all other requirements.
Driver Licenses & Identification Mobility
Accessible: Policies provide the state’s undocumented residents with access to driver licenses and/or state identification regardless of their immigration status, but these are not REAL ID compliant.
California provides eligible undocumented residents, including DACA recipients, with access to in-state tuition, state financial aid, professional and occupational licensure, and driver licenses and state identification.
California Assembly Bill (A.B.) 540, signed into law on October 12, 2001, allows eligible undocumented students living in California to access in-state tuition. California Assembly Bill (A.B.) 2000, signed into law on September 27, 2014, and Senate Bill (S.B.) 68, signed into law on October 5, 2017, expand the scope of eligibility for in-state tuition. Students must meet certain requirements to access in-state tuition, including:
- Attend a California high school, adult school, or community college for at least three years or the equivalent; or
- Graduate from a California high school, attain an equivalent GED, or fulfill minimum transfer requirements from a community college to a UC or CSU campus;
- File an affidavit, the California Nonresident Exemption Request, stating that they meet the requirements for in-state tuition and will obtain legal status as soon as they are eligible.
Please click here for more detailed information on eligibility requirements.
California A.B. 2000 expands eligibility for in-state tuition to students who graduate early from a California high school before completing the three-year high school requirement, usually through participation in an accelerated learning program. AB 2000 allows students to access in-state tuition if they completed the equivalent of three or more years of high school coursework and attended a California elementary or secondary schools for a total of three or more years.
S.B. 68 expands in-state tuition to students who complete three or more years of attendance or the equivalent in credits while enrolled in a California high school, adult school, community college, or a combination of those schools.
California Assembly Bill (A.B. 343), signed into law on October 5, 2017, provides certain individuals admitted to the United States as refugees or who have a Special Immigrant Visa (SIV) with access to in-state tuition.
Refugee In-State Tuition: There are 3 main college systems in California: (1) University of California (“UC”); (2) California State University (“CSU”); (3) community colleges (“CCC”) that each have different policies related to refugee access to in-state tuition.
- University of California: The University of California policy grants in-state tuition to refugees upon meeting residency and other requirements.
- California State University: CSU’s policy classifies refugees as eligible for in-state tuition after one year of California residency.
- Community Colleges: California passed Assembly Bill A.B. 343 (Cal.Educ.Code § 68075.6), which provides: “A student of the California Community Colleges who has a special immigrant visa that has been granted a status under Section 1244 of Public Law 110-181 or under Public Law 109-163, or is a refugee admitted to the United States under Section 1157 of Title 8 of the United States Code, and who, upon entering the United States, settled in California, shall be exempt from paying the nonresident tuition fee required by Section 76140 for the length of time he or she lives in this state up to the minimum time necessary to become a resident.”
California provides eligible undocumented students, including DACA recipients, with access to state financial aid, scholarships, and educational loans. California Assembly Bill (A.B.) 131, signed into law in October 2011, provides undocumented students with access to state-based financial aid. California Assembly Bill (A.B.) 130, signed into law in July 2011, allows undocumented students living in California to access non-state funded scholarships. Both laws are known as the California Dream Act.
California Senate Bill (S.B.) 1210, the California DREAM Loan Program, signed into law in September 2014, establishes an educational loan program for eligible undocumented students.
Please click here for more detailed information on eligibility requirements.
California allows individuals to obtain professional and occupational licensure regardless of their immigration status.
California Senate Bill (S.B.) 1159, signed into law in September 2014, allows individuals who complete the necessary training and other state licensing requirements to obtain professional licenses, independent of their immigration status. Applicants without a Social Security Number (SSN) can provide an Individual Tax Identification Number (ITIN) when seeking a professional license.
California Assembly Bill (A.B.) 595, signed into law in August 2019, allows a student enrolled in a community college class pursuant to an apprenticeship training program or an internship training program who does not have an SSN to use an ITIN for purposes of any background check required by the class or program.
California Senate Bill (S.B.) 695, signed into law in September 2018, prohibits licensing boards from requiring an individual to disclose their citizenship or immigration status for the purpose of obtaining professional licensure. The bill requires the Commission on Teacher Credentialing to authorize the use of ITINs in lieu of SSNs for the purpose of credentialing. The bill also requires the Department of Public Health to accept ITINs for certification applications. California Assembly Bill (A.B.) 2184, signed into law in September 2018, requires local governments to accept a California driver’s license or identification number, an ITIN, or municipal identification number in lieu of a SSN for the issuance of a business license.
California Senate Bill (S.B.) 788, signed into law in October 2017, allows the Insurance Commissioner to accept ITINs in lieu of SSNs from licensure applicants.
Undocumented immigrants living in California are eligible to obtain a driver license. Assembly Bill (A.B.) 60, signed into law on October 3, 2013, permits all eligible undocumented residents to obtain a driver license or state identification card.
DACA recipients in California are also allowed to obtain a driver license or state identification card.
The following narratives highlight stories of immigrant, refugee, and international students, alumni, and scholars, including in their own words or as shared publicly.
Student Narrative: Cristina Constantino
Cristina Constantino is a public middle school Spanish teacher. She helps her students see themselves in the curriculum and embrace the language of their native countries.Continue Reading
Student Narrative: Isabel Shantal Robles
Isabel Shantal Robles received her Masters in Social Work. This has allowed her to work for public social services and help children and families through challenges.Continue Reading
Student Narrative: Nallely Panduro Romayor
Nallely Panduro is an immigrant rights paralegal, helping immigrants seek relief from deportation. As a DACA recipient, Nallely understands the importance of serving vulnerable community members.Continue Reading
Effective Practices and State Resources
Spotlight on effective practices and policy, research, or community-based state resources.
Undocumented Students in Higher Education (Updated March 2021)
More than 427,000 undocumented students in the U.S. are enrolled in higher education, including 181,000 DACA-eligible individuals.Continue Reading
California Based Resources for Undocumented Students
Resources cover a variety of topics related to the state of California, including state tuition and financial aid.Continue Reading
Undocumented Graduate and Professional Students Handbook
A handbook for undocumented graduate and professional students.Continue Reading